Jailos M Nzumile


Industrialization is a holistic notion as it is not relying on a single factor e.g. foreign investments or availability of resources. The holistic nature of the notion is in the sense that it requires integration of multiple entities such as technology, policies, market assurance, product competitiveness etc. just to mention as a few to actualize it. It has been noticed that most of the local producers ignore the very substantial part of packaging which is a marketing tool when it comes to selling a product. This results to poor performance of the product in the market. Following this, a research was conducted based on the local consumer products (cocoa, peanut butter, cashew nuts & tea bags) to assess and inspect the way packaging was done on different products in the supermarkets located in Dar es Salaam. The assessment was based on two groups of packaging aspects that includes structural elements and graphical elements of packaging. Structural elements composed of packaging material and wrapper design whereas graphical elements composed of label and images on the package. These elements were assessed on a particular product by considering at least two criteria under each element. Weighted average as a statistical tool was employed in which a weighting factor was assigned on each criteria which add up to 1 which is then multiplied by the score of each product and finally average was computed under each product to see whether the product is competitive or not. The results revealed that on the case of structural elements of packaging among the assessed products, it revealed that peanut butter products has the highest score (97.3%) as its packaging material is robust and appropriate while tea bags has the least score (57%) in which the package is slightly not compacted and the material is somehow light which might lead to easy penetration of foreign materials. These prompt some improvements to be done on the said product to increase its competitiveness. Graphical elements on the other hands revealed that tea bags has the highest score (78.1%) as its image and labels were done effectively and color combination and representation were okay. In the same regard, Cashew nuts had the least score (49.8%). Labels and images were not done effectively and color of the product wasn’t there at all. Improvements needs to be done on the way local producers are packaging their cashew nuts to secure their position in the market internally as well as externally


Products, Weighted Average, Graphical Elements, Structural Elements, Product Competitiveness

Full Text:



Aaker, D. A. (1991), Managing Brand Equity, New York, NY: The Free Press.

Ahmed R. R., Parmar V., & Amin M A. (2014). Impact of product packaging on consumer’s buying behavior. European Journal of Scientific Research, 122 (2): 125-134.

Asadollahi, A., & Givee, M. (2011). The Role of Graphic Design in Packaging and Sales of Product in IRAN. Contemporary Marketing Review, 1(5), 30 – 34.

Aslam, M. M. (2006). Are You Selling the Right Color? A Cross-cultural Review of Color as a Marketing Cue. Journal of Marketing Communications, 12(1), 15-30.

Bandara B.E.S., DeSilva, D. A. M., Maduwanthi, B.C.H. & Warunasinghe, W. (2015). Impact of food labeling information on consumer purchasing decision: with special reference to faculty of Agricultural Sciences. Procedia Food Science 6, 309 – 313.

Becker, L., Van-Rompay, T. J., Schiff erstein, H. N., & Galetzka, M. (2011). Tough package, strong taste: The infl uence of packaging design on taste impressions and product evaluations. Food Quality and Preference, 22(1), 17-23.

Capsule. (2008). Design matters: packaging: an essential primer for today's competitive market. Beverly, Mass: Rockport Publishers.

Estiri, M., Hasangholipour, T., Yazdani, H., Nejad, H., & Rayej, H. (2010). Food Products Consumer Behaviors: The Role of Packaging Elements. Journal of Applied Sciences, 10(7), 535 - 543.

Fatemeh, R., Abbas, D., & Neda, M. (2017). How Product Packaging Influences Buying Decisions: A Case Study of Tissue Paper in Bandar Abbas City. International Journal of Engineering Research and Management (IJERM), 4(5), 28-34.

Fellows, P., & Axtell, B. (2002). Packaging materials. Appropriate food packaging: materials and methods for small businesses. Essex, UK: ITDG Publishing. P, 25-77.

Foodservice & Packaging Institute, I. (2007). Single-use foodservice packaging: a tutorial.

Gilaninia, S., Hossein, G., & Saeid, M. (2013). Effect of Packaging Elements on Consumer Purchasing Decisions (Case Study Detergent Market). Universal Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 3(8), 10-15.

Gilaninia, S., Hossein, G., & Saeid, M. (2013). Overview on Importance of Product Packing and Its Impact on Consumer Purchasing Process. International Journal of Business and Behavioral Sciences, 3(8), 50– 54.

Gopinathar, P., Prabha G. & Ravichandran K. (2016). The Role of Packaging in Manufacturing –A Brief Understanding. Journal of Business and Management, 18(12): 1 – 7.

Grossman, R.P. & Wisenblit, J.Z. (1999). What we know about consumers’ color choices. Journal of Marketing Practice: Applied Marketing Science, 5(3), 78-88.

Herrington, J. D. & Capella, L. M. (1995). Shopping reactions to perceived time pressure. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 23 (12), 13-20.

Hill, T. (2005). Packaging of children, breakfast cereal: manufacturers and children. British Food Journal, 104, 766- 777.

Jafari, S., nia, M. S., Salehi, M., & Zahmatkesh, R. (2013). Influence of Package on Consumer Behavior. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review (OMAN Chapter), 2(6), 65 – 71.

Kenneth M., & Betty B. (2007). Food Packaging—Roles, Materials, and Environmental Issues. Journal of food science, 72(3): 39 – 55.

How to cite this paper: Jailos M. Nzumile (2020), Paper Title: Competitiveness of a Product Based on its Package: A Case

Study of Tanzanian Local Consumer Products. Business Education Journal (BEJ), Volume IV, Issue I, 11 Pages.

Löfgren, M., & Witell, L. (2005). Kano’s theory of attractive quality and packaging. Quality Management Journal, 12(3), 7-20.

Madzharov, A. V., & Block, L. G. (2010). Effects of product unit image on consumption of snack foods. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20, 398–409.

Mitul M D., & Bhavesh J P. (2012). Role of Packaging on Consumer Buying Behavior– Patan District. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, 12 (10), 49 – 67.

Mutsikiwa, M., & Marumbwa, J. (2013). The Impact of Aesthetics Package Design Elements on Consumer Purchase Decisions: A Case of Locally Produced Dairy Products in Southern Zimbabwe. Business and Management (IOSR-JBM), 8(5), 64 – 71.

Nawaz, A., Mohib, B., & Asad, L. (2012). Effect of Product Packaging in Consumer Buying Decision. Greenwich University, Karachi.

Noble, C. H., & Kumar, M. (2010). Exploring the Appeal of Product Design: A Grounded, Value-Based Model of Key Design Elements and Relationships. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 27(5), 640-657.

Page B, Edwards M, May N. 2003. Metal cans. In: Coles R, McDowell D, Kirwan MJ, editors. Food packaging technology. London U.K.: Blackwell Publishing, CRCPress. P.121 – 51.

Prathiraja, P.H.K. & Ariyawardana A. (2003), impact of nutritional labeling on consumer buying behavior. Sri Lankan Journal of agricultural economics, 5(1).

Price, A. E. (2010). How Brand Name and Packaging Quality Affect the Consumer Choice Process. Butler University, Graduate Thesis Collection, College of Business. Purchase Intentions. College of Management Sciences, 13 (2), 97 – 114.

Qing, H., Kai, Z., Zhang, C.-F., & Chen, M.-R. (2012). Packaging Design Research and Analysis Based on Graphic Visual. IACSIT Coimbatore Conferences, 28, 148 – 153.

Raudenbush, B., & Meyer, B. (2002). Ratings of pleasantness and intensity for beverages served in containers congruent and incongruent with expectancy. Perceptual and motor skills.

Ritnamkam, S., & Sahachaisaeree, N. (2012). Package Design Determining Young Purchasers ‘Buying Decision: A Cosmetic Packaging Case Study on Gender Distinction. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 38, 373 – 379.

Saeed, R., Lodhi, R. N., Rauf, A., Rana, M. I., Mahmood, Z., & Ahmad, M. (2013). Impact of Labeling on Customer Buying Behavior in Sahiwal, Pakistan. World Applied Sciences Journal, 24(9), 1250- 1254.

Schrijver, M. (August 2013). Retail Ready Packaging and the importance of Design. University of Twente.

Schrijver, M. (August 2013). Retail Ready Packaging and the Importance of Design. University of Twente.

Sidrah W., Marium M K., & Nawaz A. (2018). Product Packaging and Consumer

Silayoi, P., & Speece, M. (2004). Packaging and purchase decisions: An exploratory study on the impact of involvement level and time pressure. British Food Journal, 106(8), 607 - 628.

Sioutis, T. (2011). Effect of package design on consumer expectations of food product healthiness. (Master's Thesis).University of AARHUS.

Suppakul P, Miltz J, Sonneveld K, Bigger SW (2003) Active Packaging Technologies with an Emphasis on Antimicrobial Packaging and its Applications. J Food Sci 68: 408-420.

Taha M R., Hao F., Wade Y., Khalil E., & Mohamad A. (2011). Effects of type of packaging material on physicochemical and sensory properties of olive oil. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 4 (4): 66 – 72.

Underwood, R. L. (2012). The Communicative Power of Product Packaging: Creating Brand Identity via Lived and Mediated Experience. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice 9 (winter), 12 (10), 62-76.

Vyas H., & Bhuvanesh V. (2014) Packaging Design Elements and Users Perception: A Context in Fashion Branding and Communication. Journal of Applied Packaging Research, 34, 95 – 107.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2020 Business Education Journal